America Latina – Italia: innovazione nella tradizione dell’etnofarmacopea per il futuro sostenibile
Grandi Maurizio, Baiocchi Claudio, Ballati Arianna
La Torre di Maurizio Grandi
CUCS22 Napoli, 21-22-23 Aprile 2022
Mugwort (Artemisia): Constituents with potential antiviral activity are Artemisisin and Sesquiterpenes. Efficacy on HBV, HCV, CMV, Herpes Simplex1, EBV have been documented since 1990. “During the Sars -CoV outbreak that occurred in late 2002 and spread in 2002 in the Guangdong province of China, traditional Chinese medicine was used extensively.
In the new Sars-CoV-2 outbreak, a mixture of a dozen medicinal plants have been used, included Artemisia, administered only with the advantage of
causing no side effects.” Since 8 April 2021, it has been the subject of studies at the Institut Max Planck, in Potsdam (Germany). The use of herbal substances with antiviral action for the treatment of Covid 19 cases, such as artemisinin, is already active in countries such as Madagascar or Israel.
Green Propoli from Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia): antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing activity. Green propolis is the result of a long and complex process of orchestrating variables: the soil, the plant, the bark, the fungus, the bee. It arises from biotic interaction: the thinning of the resin of Baccharis dracunlifolia leads to infection by endophytic fungi, beetles, heteroptera, hemiptera and orthoptera and struthantus flexicaulis (60%), whose composition and growth is influenced by the sex of the plant. The change
in competitive and dynamic interactions leads to bee attraction and the propolis production process.
Cinchona (China): Ana da Osorio, Countess of Cinchona, wife of the Viceroy of Peru, cured malaria with it and imported it to Europe in 1639, providing treatment for the poor of Lima (Sebastiano Bado). It is known as Countess’s bark or Jesuit’s bark, as the Jesuit Bernabè Cobo (1582-1627) imported it. Quinine, extracted from the bark (Pulvis Gesuiticus) was isolated in 1817 by Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou. In 1928, quinine was also used in Nigeria to eradicate bubonic fever. The alkaloid quinine, extracted from Chincona L.. is a well-known antimalarial, febrifuge, but other alkaloids (quinidine, cinchonine, cinconidine) have other functions besides that against the malaria plasmodium (e.g. antiarrhythmic). The potential activity demonstrated on Covid 19, which could be both antiviral and in the control of cytokines, is unknown to date. With a view to assessing the efficacy of plant extracts with recognised anti-viral activity such as quincona (cinchona) and mugwort, research studies are planned to test their possible effect on COVID cell cultures, both in vitro and in vivo. The
proposal is to facilitate knowledge, study and application of technical skills for the analysis and use of plant compounds in indigenous populations, promoting the exchange of indigenous species for cultivation, study and therapeutic use, including through the planting and conservation of endangered species in Mediterranean areas, for the study of possible differences in the analytical characterisation of plant phytochemical complexes.
Cinnemomum Camphora (Ravintsara): The essential oil contained in the leaves is rich in terpenes (linaol, alpha terpineol, eugenol, 1.8 cineol). Numerous studies have shown activity in inhibiting the formation of viral nucleic acids and viral replications. (S.A.A.Yassim e M.A. Naji 2003).
Geissospermum Vellosii (Pao Pereira): part of the Apocynaceae family, present in the Amazon forest, especially in Brazil, Bolivia, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana. The bark of this plant flakes and regenerates continuously, so there is no need to cut the tree to remove the bark. The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the bark is rich in alkaloids, granted for its astringent, febrifuge, Geissospermine can stop the function of the central nervous system. Traditional Brazilian Medicine used it for fever, indigestion, malaria (prevention and treatment), to strengthen the immune system. Clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy on malaria, anticancer activity.
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